Hole in ozone layer is discovered over Antarctica in 1985.Because of this hole, Ultraviolet light can reach the earth and harm both the humans (skin cancer) and plants. In 1987, USA and other developed nations signed Montreal Protocol as an effort to protect ozone layer by reducing the use of CFC and HCFC .In 1993, the Schedule to end CFC and HCFC are announced. The production of CFC ended on 1996 and all ozone depleting substances (HCFC including R22) will face a complete ban on 2030.
Pressure temperature chart or PT chart is one of the most important tool to evaluate system performance or diagnose problems.Technicians can use it along with metering
gauges to check the proper functioning of Air conditioner (AC) Systems .Below you can see the PT charts of most important refrigerants :
Many car manufacturers will not cover your car parts under warranty if you use any refrigerant other than R134A.So just check all the details with your manufacturer before opting for any refrigerant blends other than R134A.
EPA has approved below refrigerants under its SNAP (Significant New Alternatives Policy) Program as an alternative to R12 in car air conditioners other than R134A .You must buy only EPA approved refrigerant if you want to use a refrigerant blend other than R134A.
All refrigerants (including R410A, R22, R134A,etc ) have a unique label designed for them. All refrigerant or blends have a unique background color to separate it from other refrigerants.
Leaks increase the cost of running air conditioner systems as it reduces the cooling efficiency and in turn increases the electricity consumption. Another adverse effect is on ozone layer. All systems leak refrigerant. One pound in two years is acceptable but if it leaks more than that, we need to repair the leak.
Refrigerants are covered under European fluorinated gas regulations (F GAS REGULATIONS).Check below points
All car models built before 1995 uses R12 as refrigerant for car AC system. Since then R12 is replaced by R134A because of lower GWP. You cannot use R134A in car AC’s deigned for R12 as R134A operates at a much higher pressure.
You have to retrofit your old car AC system to use r134a using below steps .
R134a is the most popular refrigerant to charge the AC systems inside the car.
Keep in mind that you will need to vacuum the car if the AC is discharged completely.
• You need an AC main fold gauge and a vacuum pump.
• AC Main fold gauge has three lines : blue, red and yellow. Connect yellow to vacuum pump, red to large fitting and blue to small fitting in the car.
Why R22 is replaced with R410A?
Its performance is similar to R22 and it does not contain chlorine and hence it is less damaging to Ozone layer.
In 1990′s the most popular choice for car AC refrigerants was R12.It was manufactured by Dupont and marketed as Freon. It was chlorine based (HFC or HYDRO FLUORO CARBON) and has a very high warming potential (8500). It was banned in the 90′s because of its adverse effect on Ozone layer and search for green refrigerants started.
R134a refrigerant replaced R12 for charging Car AC’s as it was effective in cooling and has a 7 times less warming potential (1400) than R12.In recent years ,EPA has announced
• All the vehicle models starting from 2011 has to use a refrigerant with a warming potential of less than 150.
• Starting from 2017 all new vehicles sold will have to meet the low global warming potential requirement.